VR Sickness Versus VR Presence: A Statistical Prediction Model

Woojae Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Alan Conrad Bovik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Although it is well-known that the negative effects of VR sickness, and the desirable sense of presence are important determinants of a user's immersive VR experience, there remains a lack of definitive research outcomes to enable the creation of methods to predict and/or optimize the trade-offs between them. Most VR sickness assessment (VRSA) and VR presence assessment (VRPA) studies reported to date have utilized simple image patterns as probes, hence their results are difficult to apply to the highly diverse contents encountered in general, real-world VR environments. To help fill this void, we have constructed a large, dedicated VR sickness/presence (VR-SP) database, which contains 100 VR videos with associated human subjective ratings. Using this new resource, we developed a statistical model of spatio-temporal and rotational frame difference maps to predict VR sickness. We also designed an exceptional motion feature, which is expressed as the correlation between an instantaneous change feature and averaged temporal features. By adding additional features (visual activity, content features) to capture the sense of presence, we use the new data resource to explore the relationship between VRSA and VRPA. We also show the aggregate VR-SP model is able to predict VR sickness with an accuracy of 90% and VR presence with an accuracy of 75% using the new VR-SP dataset.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9263288
Pages (from-to)559-571
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1992-2012 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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