Visual pathway-related horizontal reference plane for three-dimensional craniofacial analysis

Y. H. Kang, B. C. Kim, K. R. Park, J. Y. Yon, H. J. Kim, H. J. Tak, Z. Piao, M. K. Kim, S. H. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Authors- Kang YH, Kim BC, Park KR, Yon JY, Kim HJ, Tak HJ, Piao Z, Kim MK, Lee SH Objectives- To construct three-dimensional (3D) horizontal reference planes based on visual pathway and to determine their stability and reliability by analyzing the structural patterns of normal and dysmorphology for 3D craniofacial analysis. Setting and Sample Population- Thirty-six subjects with maxillofacial dysmorphology and malocclusion, and eight normal controls. Materials and Methods Population- On the 3D computed tomographic images of the subjects, the visual pathway-based planes, including the orbital axis plane (OAP), visual axis plane (VAP), and the optical axis plane (OpAP), were constructed and evaluated. Results- The OAP, but not the VAP and OpAP, showed the ideal relationship between the midsagittal and posterior maxillary plane, and properly described the different patterns of maxillofacial dysmorphology with craniofacial plane 1 of Delaire's analysis and the occlusal plane. Conclusions- The proposed visual pathway-related horizontal reference planes, and in particular the OAP, seem to correctly express the visual axis and the position of the head in natural head position and can be used as a horizontal reference plane for the 3D analysis of craniofacial dysmorphology and anthropology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-254
Number of pages10
JournalOrthodontics and Craniofacial Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Nov

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthodontics
  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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