Validation of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) system KHU Mark1: Impedance spectroscopy and time-difference imaging

Tong In Oh, Hwan Koo, Kyung Heon Lee, Sang Min Kim, Jeehyun Lee, Sung Wan Kim, Jin Keun Seo, Eung Je Woo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)


Validation and interpretation of reconstructed images using a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) requires a conductivity phantom including imaging objects with known complex conductivity (σ + iωε) spectra. We describe imaging experiments using the recently developed mfEIT system called the KHU Mark1 with the frequency range of 10 Hz to 500 kHz. Using a bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) system, we first measured complex conductivity spectra of different imaging objects including saline, agar, polyacrylamide, TX151, animal hide gelatin, banana and cucumber. Based on an analysis of how conductivity and permittivity affect measured complex boundary voltages, we suggested a new complex version of a multi-frequency time-difference image reconstruction algorithm. Imaging experiments were conducted to produce time-difference images of the objects at multiple frequencies using the proposed algorithm. Images of a conductor (stainless steel) and an insulator (acrylic plastic) were used to set a common scale bar to display all images. Comparing reconstructed time-difference images at multiple frequencies with measured complex conductivity spectra, we found that they showed an overall similarity in terms of changes in complex conductivity values with respect to frequency. However, primarily due to the limitation of the difference imaging algorithm, we suggest that multi-frequency time-difference images must be interpreted in terms of relative contrast changes with respect to frequency. We propose further imaging studies using biological tissues of known complex conductivity spectra and using human subjects to find clinical applications of the mfEIT system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-307
Number of pages13
JournalPhysiological measurement
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Mar 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Physiology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Validation of a multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (mfEIT) system KHU Mark1: Impedance spectroscopy and time-difference imaging'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this