Universal kriging for loran ASF map generation

Pyo Woong Son, Joon Hyo Rhee, Jaehui Hwang, Jiwon Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


After a series of intentional Global Positioning System (GPS) jamming attacks impacted a large area of South Korea, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of South Korea considers long-range navigation (Loran) and enhanced Loran (eLoran) as a maritime backup navigation system. Despite its robustness to signal jamming, the positioning accuracy of Loran/eLoran is lower than that of GPS. Because the signal delay due to the land path, which is called the additional secondary factor (ASF), is the largest unknown component of Loran/eLoran, it is necessary to account for temporal and spatial ASF errors to ensure high accuracy. The generation of ASF maps based on ASF survey data in a service area is the most convenient way to mitigate spatial ASF error, but the quality of ASF maps depends on the applied interpolation algorithm. It is desirable to generate high-quality ASF maps based on ASF measurements at only a few survey points, because extensive ASF surveys are expensive and time consuming and require considerable effort. This paper proposes kriging methods for satisfying this objective and shows their superior performance during a field test in Incheon, Korea. In particular, universal kriging with the proposed drift model showed a better performance than linear interpolation, inverse distance weighing, and ordinary kriging when the test vehicle was close to a coastline. The positioning accuracy with the ASF maps generated by the proposed universal kriging along a 5-km route during the field test was 25.24 m (95%). The land vehicle used for the test experienced significant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation owing to the noise caused by its engine. A vessel without such SNR degradation is expected to achieve higher accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2876587
Pages (from-to)1828-1842
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, South Korea, as a part of the project titled "Development of enhanced Loran system," and in part by the Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea, under the "ICT Consilience Creative Program" (IITP-2018-2017- 0-01015) supervised by the Institute for Information & Communications Technology Promotion (IITP).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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