Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by animal studies using gene modulation: A comprehensive review

Keum Hwa Lee, Byung Soo Ahn, Dohyeon Cha, Won Woo Jang, Eugene Choi, Soohyun Park, Jun Hyeong Park, Junseok Oh, Da Eun Jung, Heeryun Park, Ju Ha Park, Youngsong Suh, Dongwan Jin, Siyeon Lee, Yong Hwan Jang, Tehwook Yoon, Min Kyu Park, Yoonje Seong, Jihoon Pyo, Sunmo YangYoungin Kwon, Hyunjean Jung, Chae Kwang Lim, Jun Beom Hong, Yeoeun Park, Eunjin Choi, Jae Il Shin, Andreas Kronbichler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Autoimmune diseases are clinical syndromes that result from pathogenic inflammatory responses driven by inadequate immune activation by T- and B-cells. Although the exact mechanisms of autoimmune diseases are still elusive, genetic factors also play an important role in the pathogenesis. Recently, with the advancement of understanding of the immunological and molecular basis of autoimmune diseases, gene modulation has become a potential approach for the tailored treatment of autoimmune disorders. Gene modulation can be applied to regulate the levels of interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), interferon-γ and other inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting these cytokine expressions using short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) or by inhibiting cytokine signaling using small molecules. In addition, gene modulation delivering anti-inflammatory cytokines or cytokine antagonists showed effectiveness in regulating autoimmunity. In this review, we summarize the potential target genes for gene or immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). This article will give a new perspective on understanding immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases not only in animals but also in human. Emerging approaches to investigate cytokine regulation through gene modulation may be a potential approach for the tailored immunomodulation of some autoimmune diseases near in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102469
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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