Collective oscillations of massless particles in two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials offer an innovative route toward implementing atomically thin devices based on low-energy quasiparticle interactions. Strong confinement of near-field distribution on the 2D surface is essential to demonstrate extraordinary optoelectronic functions, providing means to shape the spectral response at the mid-infrared (IR) wavelength. Although the dynamic polarization from the linear response theory has successfully accounted for a range of experimental observations, a unified perspective was still elusive, connecting the state-of-the-art developments based on the 2D Dirac plasmon-polaritons. Here, we review recent works on graphene and three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) plasmon-polariton, where the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) radiation experiences prominent confinement into a deep-subwavelength scale in a novel optoelectronic structure. After presenting general light-matter interactions between 2D Dirac plasmon and subwavelength quasiparticle excitations, we introduce various experimental techniques to couple the plasmon-polaritons with electromagnetic radiations. Electrical and optical controls over the plasmonic excitations reveal the hybridized plasmon modes in graphene and 3D TI, demonstrating an intense near-field interaction of 2D Dirac plasmon within the highly-compressed volume. These findings can further be applied to invent optoelectronic bio-molecular sensors, atomically thin photodetectors, and laser-driven light sources.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics