Twelve design patterns for integrating and normalizing product model schemas

Ghang Lee, Charles M. Eastman, Rafael Sacks

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This article reviews a method for generating a product model from user data and introduces 12 design patterns for resolving conflicts that may occur in the integration and normalization process. The generating method and design patterns were evaluated during a project to integrate the product models collected from three different precast concrete companies in the United States, testing the new method of product model generation. The application results indicate that the 12 design patterns are effective and sufficient for resolving most known schema conflicts and for integrating and normalizing multiple product models into a single well-formed product model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-181
Number of pages19
JournalComputer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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