Three dopaminergic polymorphisms are associated with academic achievement in middle and high school

Kevin M. Beaver, Michael G. Vaughn, John Paul Wright, Matt DeLisi, Matthew O. Howard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Although academic achievement is a heritable construct, to date research has yet to explore its molecular genetic underpinnings. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the current longitudinal study investigated the associations between polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4) and academic achievement during middle and high school (Ns ranged between 622 and 2181). Findings revealed statistically significant associations between the three dopaminergic polymorphisms and a composite genetic risk index with English, math, history, and science grades.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-604
Number of pages9
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research uses data from Add Health, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris, and funded by a grant P01-HD31921 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development , with cooperative funding from 17 other agencies. Special acknowledgment is due to Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Persons interested in obtaining data files from Add Health should contact Add Health, Carolina Population Center, 123 W. Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-2524 ( ). We also thank the Center for Preventing Educational Risk at the University of Texas at Austin for their generous support to K. M. Beaver & M. G. Vaughn.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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