Three-dimensional soft tissue landmark detection with marching cube algorithm

Yoonjung Lee, Ji Min Lee, Sun Hyung Park, Yoon Jeong Choi, Sung Hwan Choi, Jae Joon Hwang, Hyung Seog Yu

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Current method of analyzing three-dimensional soft tissue data, especially in the frontal view, is subjective and has poor reliability. To overcome this limitation, the present study aimed to introduce a new method of analyzing soft tissue data reconstructed by marching cube algorithm (Program S) and compare it with a commercially available program (Program A). Cone-beam computed tomography images of 42 patients were included. Two orthodontists digitized six landmarks (pronasale, columella, upper and lower lip, right and left cheek) twice using both programs in two-week intervals, and the reliability was compared. Furthermore, computer-calculated point (CC point) was developed to evaluate whether human error could be reduced. The results showed that the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of Program S (99.7–100% and 99.9–100%, respectively) were higher than that of Program A (64.0–99.9% and 76.1–99.9%, respectively). Moreover, the inter-examiner difference of coordinate values and distances for all six landmarks in Program S was lower than Program A. Lastly, CC point was provided as a consistent single point. Therefore, it was validated that this new methodology can increase the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of soft tissue landmark digitation and CC point can be used as a landmark to reduce human error.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1544
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

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© 2023, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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