Thick-lens velocity-map imaging spectrometer with high resolution for high-energy charged particles

N. G. Kling, D. Paul, A. Gura, G. Laurent, S. De, H. Li, Z. Wang, B. Ahn, C. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, I. V. Litvinyuk, C. L. Cocke, I. Ben-Itzhak, D. Kim, M. F. Kling

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51 Citations (Scopus)


A novel design for a velocity-map imaging (VMI) spectrometer with high resolution over a wide energy range surpassing a standard VMI design is reported. The main difference to a standard three-electrode VMI is the spatial extension of the applied field using 11 electrodes forming a thick-lens. This permits measurements of charged particles with higher energies while achieving excellent resolving power over a wide range of energies. Using SIMION simulations, the thick-lens VMI is compared to a standard design for up to 360 eV electrons. The simulations also show that the new spectrometer design is suited for charged-particle detection with up to 1 keV using a repeller-electrode voltage of -30 kV. The experimental performance is tested by laser-induced ionization of rare gases producing electrons up to about 70 eV. The thick-lens VMI is useful for a wide variety of studies on atoms, molecules and nanoparticles in intense laser fields and high-photon-energy fields from high-harmonic-generation or free-electron lasers.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP05005
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mathematical Physics
  • Instrumentation


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