The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing worldwide, thus stimulating studies on their etiopathogenesis, derived from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic association studies have shown the PTPN22 gene as a shared genetic risk factor with implications in multiple autoimmune disorders. By encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed by the majority of cells belonging to the innate and adaptive immune systems, the PTPN22 gene may have a fundamental role in the development of immune dysfunction. PTPN22 polymorphisms are associated with rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, and many other autoimmune conditions. In this review, we discuss the progress in our understanding of how PTPN22 impacts autoimmunity in both humans and animal models. In addition, we highlight the pathogenic significance of the PTPN22 gene, with particular emphasis on its role in T and B cells, and its function in innate immune cells, such as monocytes, dendritic and natural killer cells. We focus particularly on the complexity of PTPN22 interplay with biological processes of the immune system. Findings highlight the importance of studying the function of disease-associated PTPN22 variants in different cell types and open new avenues of investigation with the potential to drive further insights into mechanisms of PTPN22. These new insights will reveal important clues to the molecular mechanisms of prevalent autoimmune diseases and propose new potential therapeutic targets.
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© 2021 Elsevier Inc.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine