We explored interfacial electronic structures in indium tin oxide (ITO)/DNTPD/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) layer stack in an OLED to clarify the real role of an aromatic amine-based hole injection layer, DNTPD. A hole injection barrier at the ITO/DNTPD interface is lowered by 0.20 eV but a new hole barrier of 0.36 eV at the DNTPD/NPB is created. The new barrier at the DNTPD/NPB interface and its higher bulk resistance serve as hole retardation, and thus those cause the operation voltage for the ITO/DNTPD/NPB to increase. However, it improves current efficiency through balancing holes and electrons in the emitting layer.
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