The electron beam deposition of titanium on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and the resulting enhanced biological properties

Cheol Min Han, Eun Jung Lee, Hyoun Ee Kim, Young Hag Koh, Keung N. Kim, Yoon Ha, Sung Uk Kuh

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213 Citations (Scopus)


The surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) was coated with a pure titanium (Ti) layer using an electron beam (e-beam) deposition method in order to enhance its biocompatibility and adhesion to bone tissue. The e-beam deposition method was a low-temperature coating process that formed a dense, uniform and well crystallized Ti layer without deteriorating the characteristics of the PEEK implant. The Ti coating layer strongly adhered to the substrate and remarkably enhanced its wettability. The Ti-coated samples were evaluated in terms of their in vitro cellular behaviors and in vivo osteointegration, and the results were compared to a pure PEEK substrate. The level of proliferation of the cells (MC3T3-E1) was measured using a methoxyphenyl tetrazolium salt (MTS) assay and more than doubled after the Ti coating. The differentiation level of cells was measured using the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and also doubled. Furthermore, the in vivo animal tests showed that the Ti-coated PEEK implants had a much higher bone-in-contact (BIC) ratio than the pure PEEK implants. These in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the e-beam deposited Ti coating significantly improved the potential of PEEK for hard tissue applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3465-3470
Number of pages6
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2010 May

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Fundamental R&D Program for Core Technology of Materials funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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