Background: The demand for implant dentistry, which includes customized abutments, is increasing. A lot of pollutions are generated on the customized abutment surface following milling procedure. This study evaluated the surface topography and cleanliness of customized abutments after cleaning procedures, which are simply applicable in the dental clinic. Methods: Thirty computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing internal connection type titanium abutments were produced, milled, and randomly divided into 3 groups: steam cleaning (control group), chlorhexidine (CHX) scrubbing (test group 1), and ultrasonic cleaning with CHX solution, acetone, and ethyl alcohol (test group 2). Each group was evaluated using microscopic and microbial analysis. Results: Foreign bodies were observed on the abutment surfaces in control group and test group 1, but not in test group 2. Bacteria were observed on 40% of the agar plates following steam cleaning; most of the colonies consisted of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus warneri. Colony growth was absent following test group 1 and 2. Conclusion: For customized abutments, cleaning with steam is ineffective. CHX scrubbing effectively eliminates only bacteria. Ultrasonic cleaning with CHX solution, acetone, and ethyl alcohol successfully removes both foreign bodies and bacteria. Thus, the ultrasonic cleaning method is conveniently applicable in the dental clinic for eliminating contamination of the customized abutment surface.
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