Verbally describing a previously seen face can impair subsequent recognition of the described face. Although this phenomenon, known as the verbal overshadowing effect, has been found in the context of recognition memory, Lloyd-Jones, Brown, and Clarke found that it does not reduce the amount of priming (one type of implicit memory) but influences the reaction times (RTs) for a perceptual task. Here, we re-examined the effect of verbalisation on implicit memory by manipulating the processing mode for both description and perceptual tasks. With this experimental design, we found that verbalisation influenced implicit memory consistent with the explanation of the processing shift account. Verbalisation can leave the priming effect intact but lengthens the RTs when the processing mode involved in verbalisation is inappropriate for the perceptual task. Also, we found that the face inversion effect was modulated by the processing mode involved in verbalisation. We suggest, therefore, that implicit memory is not different from explicit memory in the way that it is affected by verbalisation. We propose that the mode of processing is critical for both types of visual memory.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Correspondence should be addressed to Sang Chul Chong, Department of Psychology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu Seoul 120-749, Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org We would like to thank Sangmi Chung and Joohee Choi for their help in conducting the experiments. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Programme through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology [grant number 2011-0025005].
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology