Fibrosis is presented in various physiologic and pathologic conditions of the salivary gland. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in several organs, including the salivary glands. Among the TGF-β superfamily members, TGF-β1 and 2 are pro-fibrotic ligands, whereas TGF-β3 and some bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are anti-fibrotic ligands. TGF-β1 is thought to be associated with the pro-fibrotic pathogenesis of sialadenitis, post-radiation salivary gland dysfunction, and Sjögren’s syndrome. Potential therapeutic strategies that target multiple levels in the TGF-β pathway are under preclinical and clinical research for fibrosis. Despite the anti-fibrotic effect of BMPs, their in vivo delivery poses a challenge in terms of adequate clinical efficacy. In this article, we will review the relevance of TGF-β signaling in salivary gland fibrosis and advances of potential therapeutic options in the field.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2016R1E1 A1A01942724, NRF-2017R1A2B3002241, NRF-2017R1C1B1012464, NRF-2020R1I1A1A01073437) funded by the Korea government (MSIP), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 81460408) and by the BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry