Tensor manifold-based extreme learning machine for 2.5-D face recognition

Lee Ying Chong, Thian Song Ong, Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

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1 Citation (Scopus)


We explore the use of the Gabor regional covariance matrix (GRCM), a flexible matrix-based descriptor that embeds the Gabor features in the covariance matrix, as a 2.5-D facial descriptor and an effective means of feature fusion for 2.5-D face recognition problems. Despite its promise, matching is not a trivial problem for GRCM since it is a special instance of a symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrix that resides in non-Euclidean space as a tensor manifold. This implies that GRCM is incompatible with the existing vector-based classifiers and distance matchers. Therefore, we bridge the gap of the GRCM and extreme learning machine (ELM), a vector-based classifier for the 2.5-D face recognition problem. We put forward a tensor manifold-compliant ELM and its two variants by embedding the SPD matrix randomly into reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) via tensor kernel functions. To preserve the pair-wise distance of the embedded data, we orthogonalize the random-embedded SPD matrix. Hence, classification can be done using a simple ridge regressor, an integrated component of ELM, on the random orthogonal RKHS. Experimental results show that our proposed method is able to improve the recognition performance and further enhance the computational efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Article number013016
JournalJournal of Electronic Imaging
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Malaysia (Grant No. MMUE/ 140021) and National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B4011656).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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