Surface Redox Pseudocapacitance of Partially Oxidized Titanium Carbide MXene in Water-in-Salt Electrolyte

Xuehang Wang, Seong Min Bak, Meikang Han, Christopher E. Shuck, Conlan McHugh, Ke Li, Jianmin Li, Jun Tang, Yury Gogotsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Achieving pseudocapacitive intercalation in MXenes with neutral aqueous electrolytes and driving reversible redox reactions is scientifically appealing and practically useful. Here, we report that the partial oxidation of MXene intensifies pseudocapacitive Li+ intercalation into Ti3C2Tx MXene from neutral water-in-salt electrolytes. An in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows that the Ti oxidation state changes during the Li+ intercalation, indicating the presence of a surface redox reaction. The Ti oxidation/reduction is further confirmed by an in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, which shows a reversible contraction/expansion of the Ti–C interatomic distance. The intensified Li+ pseudocapacitive intercalation can be explained by the higher oxidation state of Ti at the open circuit potential. This work demonstrates the possibility of tuning the pseudocapacitive intercalation by adjusting the initial oxidation state of the transition metal on the MXene and offers a facile way to enhance the pseudocapacitance of various MXenes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30-35
Number of pages6
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 14

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Chemical Society

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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