Subnanometer vacancy defects introduced on graphene by oxygen gas

Yasuhiro Yamada, Kazumasa Murota, Ryo Fujita, Jungpil Kim, Ayuko Watanabe, Masashi Nakamura, Satoshi Sato, Kenji Hata, Peter Ercius, Jim Ciston, Cheng Yu Song, Kwanpyo Kim, William Regan, Will Gannett, Alex Zettl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

113 Citations (Scopus)


The basal plane of graphene has been known to be less reactive than the edges, but some studies observed vacancies in the basal plane after reaction with oxygen gas. Observation of these vacancies has typically been limited to nanometer-scale resolution using microscopic techniques. This work demonstrates the introduction and observation of subnanometer vacancies in the basal plane of graphene by heat treatment in a flow of oxygen gas at low temperature such as 533 K or lower. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to directly observe vacancy structures, which were compared with image simulations. These proposed structures contain C=O, pyran-like ether, and lactone-like groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2232-2235
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Feb 12

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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