Subjective quality evaluation of foveated video coding using audio-visual focus of attention

Jong Seok Lee, Francesca De Simone, Touradj Ebrahimi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a foveated coding method using audio-visual focus of attention and its evaluation through extensive subjective experiments on both standard-definition and high-definition sequences. Regarding a sound-emitting region as the location drawing the human attention, the method applies varying quality levels in an image frame according to the distance of a pixel to the identified sound source. Two experiments are presented to prove the efficiency of the method. Experiment 1 examines the validity and effectiveness of the method in comparison to the constant quality coding for high-quality conditions. In Experiment 2, the method is compared to the fixed bit rate coding for low quality conditions where coding artifacts are noticeable. The results demonstrate that the foveated coding method provides considerable coding gain without significant quality degradation, but uneven distributions of the coding artifacts (blockiness) by the method are often less preferred than the uniform distribution of the artifacts. Additional interesting findings are also discussed, such as content dependence of the performance of the method, the memory effect in multiple viewings, and the difference in the quality perception for frame size variations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5986675
Pages (from-to)1322-1331
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Nov

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received February 01, 2011; revised July 11, 2011 and August 08, 2011; accepted August 09, 2011. Date of publication August 18, 2011; date of current version October 19, 2011. This work was supported in part by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2011) under Grant 216444 (PetaMedia), and in part by the Swiss NCCR Interactive Multimodal Information Management (IM2). The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Dr. Edward J. Delp.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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