Stereoscopic 3D visual discomfort prediction: A dynamic accommodation and vergence interaction model

Heeseok Oh, Sanghoon Lee, Alan Conrad Bovik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


The human visual system perceives 3D depth following sensing via its binocular optical system, a series of massively parallel processing units, and a feedback system that controls the mechanical dynamics of eye movements and the crystalline lens. The process of accommodation (focusing of the crystalline lens) and binocular vergence is controlled simultaneously and symbiotically via cross-coupled communication between the two critical depth computation modalities. The output responses of these two subsystems, which are induced by oculomotor control, are used in the computation of a clear and stable cyclopean 3D image from the input stimuli. These subsystems operate in smooth synchronicity when one is viewing the natural world; however, conflicting responses can occur when viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content on fixed displays, causing physiological discomfort. If such occurrences could be predicted, then they might also be avoided (by modifying the acquisition process) or ameliorated (by changing the relative scene depth). Toward this end, we have developed a dynamic accommodation and vergence interaction (DAVI) model that successfully predicts visual discomfort on S3D images. The DAVI model is based on the phasic and reflex responses of the fast fusional vergence mechanism. Quantitative models of accommodation and vergence mismatches are used to conduct visual discomfort prediction. Other 3D perceptual elements are included in the proposed method, including sharpness limits imposed by the depth of focus and fusion limits implied by Panum's fusional area. The DAVI predictor is created by training a support vector machine on features derived from the proposed model and on recorded subjective assessment results. The experimental results are shown to produce accurate predictions of experienced visual discomfort.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7348693
Pages (from-to)615-629
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Institute for Information &communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. B0101-15-1371, Research on Human Safety and Contents Quality Assessment for Realistic Broadcasting).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


Dive into the research topics of 'Stereoscopic 3D visual discomfort prediction: A dynamic accommodation and vergence interaction model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this