Stepwise Regression and Latent Profile Analyses of Locomotor Outcomes Poststroke

T. George Hornby, Christopher E. Henderson, Carey L. Holleran, Linda Lovell, Elliot J. Roth, Jeong Hoon Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Purpose: Previous data suggest patient demographics and clinical presentation are primary predictors of motor recovery poststroke, with minimal contributions of physical interventions. Other studies indicate consistent associations between the amount and intensity of stepping practice with locomotor outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine the relative contributions of these combined variables to locomotor outcomes poststroke across a range of patient demographics and baseline function. Methods: Data were pooled from 3 separate trials evaluating the efficacy of high-intensity training, low-intensity training, and conventional interventions. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and training activities from 144 participants >1-month poststroke were included in stepwise regression analyses to determine their relative contributions to locomotor outcomes. Subsequent latent profile analyses evaluated differences in classes of participants based on their responses to interventions. Results: Stepwise regressions indicate primary contributions of stepping activity on locomotor outcomes, with additional influences of age, duration poststroke, and baseline function. Latent profile analyses revealed 2 main classes of outcomes, with the largest gains in those who received high-intensity training and achieved the greatest amounts of stepping practice. Regression and latent profile analyses of only high-intensity training participants indicated age, baseline function, and training activities were primary determinants of locomotor gains. Participants with the smallest gains were older (≈60 years), presented with slower gait speeds (<0.40 m/s), and performed 600 to 1000 less steps/session. Conclusions: Regression and cluster analyses reveal primary contributions of training interventions on mobility outcomes in patients >1-month poststroke. Age, duration poststroke, and baseline impairments were secondary predictors. Registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT02507466 and NCT01789853.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3074-3082
Number of pages9
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing


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