Standardization of the Korean version of mini-mental adjustment to cancer (K-Mini-MAC) scale: Factor structure, reliability and validity

Jee In Kang, Hyun Cheol Chung, Se Joo Kim, Hye Jin Choi, Joong Bae Ahn, Hei Cheul Jeung, Kee Namkoong

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Mental adjustment and coping affect the physical outcome and survival as well as quality of life in cancer patients. The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) scale is a new refined, economical and reliable self-rating instrument measuring cognitive and behavioral responses to cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mini-MAC in Korean cancer patients. A total of 208 cancer patients recruited from the Yonsei Cancer Center were assessed with the Mini-MAC and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Principal component analysis with varimax rotation for the Korean version of Mini-MAC (K-Mini-MAC) confirmed four factors. Three had psychometric properties similar to Helpless-Hopeless (HH), Anxious Preoccupation (AP) and Cognitive Avoidance (CA) of the original Mini-MAC. A novel factor, named Positive Attitude, included items of both Fatalism (FA) and Fighting Spirit (FS) from the original version. The five subscales from the original version (AP, HH, FS, FA and CA) and Positive Attitude had acceptable internal reliabilities in our sample (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.50-0.86; correlation coefficient of test-retest 0.68-0.88). For the validity, significant interscale correlation was observed in the original five subscales and Positive Attitude. Each subscale including Positive Attitude was also significantly related to Depression and Anxiety of HADS. As a whole, the K-Mini-MAC was a reliable, valid and acceptable tool for Korean cancer patients. These findings can provide information about the cross-cultural validity of Mini-MAC scale's factor structure. Cultural differences were also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)592-597
Number of pages6
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jun

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Oncology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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