The superoxide dismutase (SOD) family functions as a reactive oxygen species (ROS)scavenging system by converting superoxide anions into hydrogen peroxide in the cytosol (SOD1), mitochondria (SOD2), and extracellular matrix (SOD3). In this study, we examined the potential roles of SOD family members in skin aging. We found that SOD3 expression levels were significantly more reduced in the skin tissues of old mice and humans than in young counterparts, but SOD1 and SOD2 expression levels remained unchanged with aging. Accordingly, we analyzed the effects of SOD3 on intracellular ROS levels and the integrity of the extracellular matrix in fibroblasts. The treatment of foreskin fibroblasts with recombinant SOD3 reduced the intracellular ROS levels and secretion of MMP-1 while increasing the secretion of type I collagen. The effects of SOD3 were greater in fibroblasts treated with the TNF-α. SOD3 treatment also decreased the mRNA levels and promoter activity of MMP-1 while increasing the mRNA levels and promoter activities of COL1A1 and COL1A2. SOD3 treatment reduced the phosphorylation of NF-κB, p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK, which are essential for MMP-1 transactivation. In a three-dimensional culture of fibroblasts, SOD3 decreased the amount of type I collagen fragments produced by MMP-1 and increased the amount of nascent type I procollagen. These results demonstrate that SOD3 reduces intracellular ROS levels, suppresses MMP-1 expression, and induces type I collagen expression in fibroblasts. Therefore, SOD3 may play a role in delaying or preventing skin aging.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology