Social determinants associated with loss of an eye in the United States using the All of Us nationwide database

Alison X. Chan, Bharanidharan Radha Saseendrakumar, Daniel J. Ozzello, Michelle Ting, Jin Sook Yoon, Catherine Y. Liu, Bobby S. Korn, Don O. Kikkawa, Sally L. Baxter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To identify common factors associated with the loss of an eye using the NIH All of Us database. Methods: In this case-controlled study, we extracted electronic health record and socio-demographic data for 231 cases of eye loss from All of Us enrollment sites. Controls (N = 924) matched the demographic characteristics of the 2020 United States Census. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression identified variables significantly associated with increased odds of eye loss. Outcome measures: Medical and social determinants associated with increased odds of losing an eye. Results: Among cases, the average age (standard deviation) was 60.1 (14.4) years. The majority (125, 54.1%) were male. 87 (37.7%) identified as African American, and 49 (21.2%) identified as Hispanic or Latino. Loss of eye was more likely in those with ocular tumor (odds ratio [OR] 421.73, 25 95% confidence interval [CI] 129.81–1959.80, p <.001), trauma (OR 13.38, 95% CI 6.64–27.43, p <.001), infection (OR 11.46, 95% CI 4.11–32.26, p =.001) or glaucoma (OR 8.33, 95% CI 4.43– 15.81, p <.001). African American (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.39–4.09, p =.002) and Hispanic or Latino (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.01–3.15, p =.04) participants were disproportionately affected. Conclusions: Racial and ethnic disparities exist among those with loss of an eye from underlying conditions. Addressing health inequities may mitigate the risk of this morbid outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)739-744
Number of pages6
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology


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