Skin-conformable photoplethysmogram sensors for energy-efficient always-on cardiovascular monitoring systems

Byung Ha Kang, Kyungho Park, Mike Hambsch, Seongin Hong, Hyung Tae Kim, Dong Hyun Choi, Jin Hyeok Lee, Sunkook Kim, Hyun Jae Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Skin-conformable photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensors enable continuous and accurate monitoring of physiological states to efficiently prevent cardiovascular-related diseases. Herein, novel PPG sensors consisting of polymer/oxide hybrid phototransistors, mini-light-emitting diodes, and a framework conformable to epidermis are developed. The key element, a heterojunction phototransistor for efficient energy usage, is composed of an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based active layer for low-power consumption and a specific diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) polymer layer affording high near-infrared (NIR) light absorbability and hydrophobicity. Therefore, the phototransistors with NIR detectivity of 1.00 × 1013 Jones, rapid photoresponse within the human heart rate range, high reliability against perspiration and mechanical stress, and low operating voltages (< 5 V) are achieved. Using the developed PPG sensors, the heart rate and oxygen saturation of human subjects are successfully detected, which is comparable to the commercial PPG sensors. Furthermore, controlling potential barrier energy at the interface between heterojunction layers, PPG sensors that operate separately at low and high heart rates are implemented for continuous monitoring. Consequently, a distinguished configuration of skin-conformable PPG sensors and a novel concept of an always-on cardiovascular monitoring system while consuming less power are suggested. The study contributes to the development of PPG sensors and may become a potential solution for Healthcare 4.0 applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106773
JournalNano Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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