The insertion of pedicle screws in the lateral position without a position change has been reported. We completed a retrospective comparison of the radiologic and clinical outcomes of 36 patients who underwent either single-position oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion (SP-OLIF) using the O-arm (36 cases) or conventional OLIF (C-OLIF) using the C-arm (20 cases) for L2–5 single-level lumbar degenerative diseases. Radiological parameters were analyzed, including screw accuracy (Gertzbein-Robbins classification system; GRS), segmental instability, and fusion status. Screw misplacement was defined as a discrepancy of ≥2 mm. Clinical outcomes, including visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and postoperative complications, were assessed. The spinal fusion rate was not different between the SP-OLIF and C-OLIF groups one year after surgery (p = 0.536). The ODI score was lower (p = 0.015) in the SP-OLIF than the C-OLIF group. Physical (p = 0.000) and mental component summaries (p = 0.000) of the SF-36 were significantly higher in the SP-OLIF group. Overall complication rates, including revision, surgical site infection, ipsilateral weakness, and radicular pain/numbness, were not significantly different. SP-OLIF using the O-arm procedure is feasible, with acceptable accuracy, fusion rate, and complication rate. This may be an alternative to conventional two-stage operations.
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