It was found that ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) treatment performed on Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy surface to produce a gradient nanostructured surface layer also resulted in the nano-scale spinodal decomposition of β phase. For the first time, nano-scale spinodal decomposition of β phase induced by ultrasonic mechanical impacts was observed in a short time without any age treatment. The peak shift of XRD to lower angles, (110) β XRD peak splitting, overlapped and asymmetric XRD peaks, satellite reflections in the SAED pattern, and lattice straining in HR-TEM images confirmed nano-scale spinodal decomposition of β phase in the TNTZ alloy induced by UNSM treatment. Nano-scale EDS line-scan probe analysis revealed the β phase separation into nano-scale domains of Ti-rich (β1) and Ti-depleted (β2) phases. HR-TEM images showed the semi-coherent arrangement of Ti-rich (β1) and Ti-depleted (β2) regions. Nanosized grain formation and spinodal decomposition of β phase were induced simultaneously by UNSM treatment. The nano-scale grains, high dislocation density, and semi-coherent interface between the spinodally separated phases contributed to the high hardness of the UNSM-treated TNTZ alloy specimen.
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© 2017 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry