Serum creatinine to cystatin C ratio and clinical outcomes in adults with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease

on behalf of the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With CKD (KNOW-CKD) Study Group

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Studies have suggested that the serum creatinine/cystatin C (Cr/CysC) ratio is a surrogate marker for muscle wasting is associated with adverse outcomes in several disease conditions. To clarify the utility of the Cr/CysC ratio as a prognostic marker in chronic kidney disease (CKD) we evaluated the association between the Cr/CysC ratio clinical outcomes in patients with non-dialysis CKD. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included 1,966 participants of the KoreaN cohort study Outcomes in patients With CKD (KNOW-CKD). We evaluated associated factors with the serum Cr/CysC ratio and association between the serum Cr/CysC ratio and composite outcomes of all-cause death and cardiovascular events (CVEs). Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12 (SD) years and 61% were men. The mean serum Cr/CysC ratio was 10.97 ± 1.94 in men and 9.10 ± 1.77 in women. The Cr/CysC ratio correlated positively with urinary creatinine excretion, a marker of muscle mass. In the fully adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, the Cr/CysC ratio was associated with the occurrence of adverse outcomes through a median follow-up of 5.9 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85–0.99 for the composite outcomes, HR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78 − 0.97 for all-cause death, and HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84–1.04 for CVEs]. In subgroup analyses, there were interactions of the Cr/CysC ratio with age and sex for risk of the clinical outcomes, but not eGFR group. Conclusion: A higher Cr/CysC ratio is associated with a lower risk of the composite outcomes, especially all-cause mortality, even after adjusting for eGFR. These suggest that the Cr/CysC ratio is a useful prognostic marker in CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number996674
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept 26

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Hyun, Lee, Kim, Kim, Chung, Park, Han, Oh, Park and Oh.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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