Sequential combination of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and intra-arterial urokinase in acute ischemic stroke

Kyung Yul Lee, Dong Ik Kim, Seo Hyun Kim, Seung Ik Lee, Hae Woong Chung, Yong Woon Shim, Seung Min Kim, Ji Hoe Heo

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44 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined intravenous (IV) and intra-arterial (IA) thrombolytic therapy may be faster and easier to initiate than monotherapy, and its recanalization rate may be better as well. The sequential combination of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) and urokinase (UK) has synergistic and complementary effects on clot lysis. We prospectively evaluated the effectiveness and safety of sequential combination of IV rTPA and IA UK in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: IV rTPA was administered to patients with acute stroke within 3 hours of onset. Those whose condition had not improved at the end of rTPA infusion were further treated with selective IA UK. We evaluated baseline and 30-day National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores. RESULTS: Thirty patients were initially treated with IV rTPA; 24 were further treated with IA UK. Four patients who had rapid reocclusion following initial successful IA therapy received IV abciximab. Fourteen of 24 patients who underwent angiography had an effective perfusion state of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow. Median baseline and 30-day NIHSS scores were 18 and 2, respectively. Eighteen patients improved to a modified Rankin scale score of 0 or 1 after 90 days. Symptomatic hemorrhage developed in two patients. CONCLUSION: The strategy of using conventional-dose IV rTPA and the sequential combination of IA UK in patients without an early clinical response to IV treatment was safe and feasible. This strategy achieved high complete arterial recanalization rates and good functional outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1470-1475
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Oct

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology


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