Background: Vibrio vulnificus infection is a rare but fatal foodborne illness. Here, we report a case of Vibrio vulnificus peritonitis followed by severe septicemia in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) who was treated with hemoperfusion using polymyxin B immobilized fiber. Case presentation: A 63-year-old man undergoing CAPD was admitted to the emergency room due to general weakness, fever, and abdominal pain with hazy dialysate. Two days before admission, he had eaten raw fish. Initial laboratory tests including peritoneal fluid analysis suggested peritonitis. Despite empirical intraperitoneal antibiotic treatment, his fever did not subside, and multiple vesicles on the extremities newly appeared. The result of initial peritoneal fluid culture and blood cultures reported Vibrio vulnificus as the most likely causative pathogen. Hemoperfusion with polymyxin B immobilized fiber was performed to control gram-negative bacterial septicemia with antibiotics targeting the pathogenic organism. The patient recovered completely and was discharged without complications. Discussion and conclusion: Suspicion of Vibrio vulnificus infection in susceptible immunocompromised patients is important for early diagnosis and prompt management. Peritonitis should be noted as a clinical manifestation of Vibrio vulnificus infection in CAPD patients, and polymyxin B hemoperfusion along with proper antibiotics could be considered as a treatment option.
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