Using the eddy covariance method, this study reports the one-year turbulent fluxes of momentum, energy, and CO2, and their seasonal variations over a recently redeveloped high-rise, high-population, residential area in the metropolitan city of Seoul, Korea. The study area is affected by the Asian monsoon, which is accompanied by long rain spells and a related mid-season depression of solar radiation in the summer. Our analysis shows that the urban surface energy balance and turbulence characteristics demonstrate typical urban properties. Unstable conditions dominate all day, and the storage heat flux (night-time and morning) and sensible heat flux (afternoon) significantly affect the diurnal variations in the urban surface energy balance. Owing to the rough urban surface, the turbulence intensities are higher than those reported previously in other cities. The annual CO2 emission rate is approximately 13.1 kg CO2 m−2⋅year−1 with traffic, which is the major source of CO2 (+2.3 μmol⋅m−2⋅s−1 per 100 vehicles). Ecosystem respiration, including that by vegetation, soil, and humans, becomes dominant in the night-time (00:00–05:00), thus contributing significantly to the annual CO2 budget. Further analysis indicates a unique coupling of urban surface energy partitioning and CO2 emission rates with the seasonal progression of the Asian monsoon: (a) surface albedo has annual minima in late summer when the sun elevation angle, is relatively higher and the urban surface condition is wetter than in other seasons; (b) the Bowen ratio ranges from 1.7 (summer) to 7.0 (winter); and (c) CO2 emission rates show seasonal variations with the progress of the summer monsoon.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the associate editor, two anonymous reviewers, and Prof. S. Grimmond for discussion which improves this manuscript. This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF‐2018R1A5A1024958), the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMI2018‐03512, and the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI, PN20081). The first author was supported by the Global Ph.D. Fellowship Program (NRF‐2015H1A2A1030932).
© 2019 The Authors. International Journal of Climatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Royal Meteorological Society.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science