Safety evaluation of protective equipment for the forearm, shin, hand and foot in Taekwondo

Hee Seong Jeong, David Michael O’sullivan, Sung Cheol Lee, Sae Yong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare different brands of forearm, shin, hand and foot protective equipment used in Taekwondo. The most popular brands of large forearm, shin, hand and foot protectors (D®, A®, K®), approved by the World Taekwondo and Korean Taekwondo Association, were examined. A drop test was used to test the protective equipment using impact levels of 3J, 9J, 12J and 15J for the forearm and shin guards, and 3J and 9J for the hand and foot protectors. The protective equipment was hit ten times from each of the designated drop heights. The drop test is described in the European standards manual of protective equipment for martial arts (SRPS EN 13277-2). The maximum force (MF) and impulse were lowest for brand K® (2610.3 ± 1474.1 N), and brand A® (9.6 ± 3.1 Ns), respectively, for the forearm guards; for brand A® (2053.4 ± 1267.1 N) and brand K® (9.8 ± 3.5 Ns), respectively, for the shin guards; for brand K® (4486.5 ± 1718.4 N), and brand A® (6.3 ± 1.1 Ns), respectively for the hand protectors; and for brand A® (3733.7 ± 2465.3 N), and brand D® (6.8 ± 0.6 Ns), respectively, for the foot protectors. For the forearm guard brand and impact level, there was a significant interaction effect for the MF (F=42.44, η2=.677, p < 0.001) and impulse (F = 33.97, η2 = 0.626, p < 0.001). Based on the MF, brand K® performed the best for the forearm guards and hand protectors, and brand A®, for the shin guards and foot protectors. The best results for the impulse were for brand A® (forearm guards and hand protectors), brand K® (shin guards) and brand D® (foot protectors).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)376-383
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Sports Science and Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was conducted in cooperation with the World Taekwondo Anti-Doping and Medical Committee, which is part of the WT Sports Department and Yonsei Institute of Sports Science and Exercise Medicine (YISSEM), an IOC Research Centre for preventing injury to and protecting athletes. The authors would like to thank the World Taekwondo for all practical support. All authors have no relationship with any of the brands tested and have no other conflict of interest to declare. The study complied with the laws of the country of the authors’ affiliation.

Publisher Copyright:
© Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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