This literature review identifies factors that may place older adult patients at risk for developing delirium after spine surgery. We conducted a meta-analysis according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Using a variety of electronic databases, we identified five studies for inclusion that represent 645 patients who were 65 years or older. The pooled incidence rate of postoperative delirium was 13.0%. Factors associated with developing postoperative delirium included preoperative opioid use, cervical spine surgery versus lumbar or thoracic spine surgery, spine fusion versus simple spine surgery, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, pulmonary disease, duration of surgery, and infused IV fluid volume. Nurses who provide perioperative care for older adult patients undergoing spine surgery should be aware of the potential risk factors of delirium to ensure patient safety. Further research is required to clearly delineate the risk factors for postoperative delirium in older adults.
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