Review on sustainable production of biochar through hydrothermal liquefaction: Physico-chemical properties and applications

Vinoth Kumar Ponnusamy, Senthil Nagappan, Rahul R. Bhosale, Chyi How Lay, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Soon Woong Chang, Gopalakrishnan Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)


This review examines in detail the production and characteristics of biochar resulting from hydrothermal liquefaction. Specifically, the impact of feedstocks and different process parameters on the properties and yield of biochar by hydrothermal liquefaction has been thoroughly studied. Hydrothermal liquefaction derived biochars, relative to biochars from high-temperature thermochemical processes retain critical functional groups during carbonization and are therefore promising for a wide range of applications. Most of the review's efforts are to study possible hydrothermal liquefaction biochar applications in various fields, including fuel, metal and dye adsorption, pollutant reduction, animal feed, and biogas catalyst. The feasibility of biochar through the hydrothermal liquefaction process has been analysed via life-cycle assessment and energy evaluation. The article concludes with a brief discussion on possible issues and strategies for the sustainable development of hydrothermal liquefaction-based biochar.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123414
JournalBioresource technology
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy ( MOTIE ) of the Republic of Korea (Grant No. 20194110300040 and Grant No. 20173010092470 ). Senthil Nagappan thanks Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering for research support. This work was supported financially by the grant MOST107-2113-M-037-007-MY2 from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan and also supported by the Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University , Kaohsiung, Taiwan from “The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project” by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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