Zwitterionic polymers have extraordinary properties, that is, significant hydration and the so-called antipolyelectrolyte effect, which make them suitable for biomedical applications. The hydration induces an antifouling effect, and this has been investigated significantly. The antipolyelectrolyte effect refers to the extraordinary ion-responsive behavior of particular polymers that swell and hydrate considerably in physiological solutions. This actuation begins to attract attention to achieve in vivo antifouling that is challenging for general polyelectrolytes. In this study, we established the sophisticated cornerstone of the antipolyelectrolyte effect in detail, including (i) the essential parameters, (ii) experimental verifications, and (iii) effect of improving antifouling performance. First, we find that both osmotic force and charge screening are essential factors. Second, we identify the antipolyelectrolyte effect by visualizing the swelling and hydration dynamics. Finally, we verify that the antifouling performance can be enhanced by exploiting the antipolyelectrolyte effect and report reduction of 85% and 80% in ex and in vivo biofilm formation, respectively.
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© 2021 American Chemical Society.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)