Replacing carbohydrate with protein and fat in prediabetes or type-2 diabetes: Greater effect on metabolites in PBMC than plasma

Minjoo Kim, Gayoung Song, Miso Kang, Hye Jin Yoo, Tae Sook Jeong, Sang Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Active metabolism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could suggest their suitability for metabolomics studies. This study examined whether reductions in PBMCs and plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activities induced by dietary intervention affected the overall metabolic profiles of PBMC and plasma. Methods: Eighty nonobese subjects aged 40-70 years (18.5 & BMI < 30 kg/mbsupesup) with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed type-2 diabetes were assigned to consume either the usual refined-rice diet (control group, n = 40) or to replace refined rice with whole grains and legumes as carbohydrates (whole-grain group, n = 40) for three meals per day during the 12-week intervention. Fasting PBMC and plasma metabolomes were profiled using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Results: After 12 weeks, changes in fasting glucose, HbAbsubesub, HOMA-IR, MDA, ox-LDL, LDL particle size, plasma Lp-PLA bsubesub activity, and PBMC enzyme activity in the whole-grain group were significantly different from those in the control group before and after adjusting for baseline levels. The PBMC levels of L-leucine, oleamide, lysoPC (16:0), and lysoPC (18:0) in the whole-grain group showed greater reductions compared with those of the control group. Changes in plasma metabolites were not significantly different between the two groups. Changes in PBMC Lp-PLAbsubesub activity positively correlated with changes in L-leucine, oleamide, lysoPC (16:0), lysoPC (18:0), glucose, and ox-LDL, and negatively correlated with changes in LDL particle size. Conclusions: This study showed that dietary intervention in prediabetic or type-2 diabetic patients had a greater effect on PBMC Lp-PLAbsubesub activity and metabolites compared with those of plasma metabolites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
JournalNutrition and Metabolism
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 19

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Kim et al.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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