Reliability of Anterior Nasal Spine as a Reference Point after LeFort i Surgery Using Three-Dimensional Analysis

Seoyeon Jung, Jun Young Kim, Young Soo Jung, Hwi Dong Jung

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Abstract To evaluate the stability of maxilla following orthognathic surgery, it is necessary to consider the positional change of various landmarks according to bone remodeling of the maxilla. This study aimed to evaluate the stability of the anterior nasal spine (ANS) as a reliable landmark after orthognathic surgery. Forty-seven patients with skeletal class III malocclusion who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were included. Skeletal changes were measured using cone-beam computerized tomography at 3 time points: preoperative (T0), 1-month postoperative (T1), and 12-month postoperative (T2). Linear changes of the 6 landmark points of the maxilla were measured in 3 directions: anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse. The data were analyzed with paired t tests, independent t tests, and multiple regression analysis. At 12-month postoperatively, the ANS showed mean (standard deviation) 1.23 (1.07) mm posterior movement (P = 0.00), while other landmarks did not show positional changes, implying bony resorption of ANS. Multiple regression test showed surgical forward movements of ANS (T1-0) affect the postoperative backward changes (β = -0.05, P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the surgical movement and postoperative change of ANS by Pearson correlation test (r = -0.38, P < 0.05). The ANS is not a reliable measurement point in three-dimensional superimposition after orthognathic surgery. Therefore, in studying the stability and positional change pattern after LeFort I surgery, it is not recommended to use ANS as a reference point, as changes can occur in the measurement point itself.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2104-2108
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct 1

Bibliographical note

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© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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