Reinforced Abstractive Text Summarization with Semantic Added Reward

Heewon Jang, Wooju Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Text summarization is an important task in natural language processing (NLP). Neural summary models summarize information by understanding and rewriting documents through the encoder-decoder structure. Recent studies have sought to overcome the bias that cross-entropy-based learning methods can have through reinforcement learning (RL)-based learning methods or the problem of failing to learn optimized for metrics. However, the ROUGE metric with only n -gram matching is not a perfect solution. The purpose of this study is to improve the quality of the summary statement by proposing a reward function used in text summarization based on RL. We propose ROUGE-SIM and ROUGE-WMD, modified functions of the ROUGE function. ROUGE-SIM enables meaningfully similar words, in contrast to ROUGE-L. ROUGE-WMD is a function adding semantic similarity to ROUGE-L. The semantic similarity between articles and summary text was computed using Word Mover's Distance (WMD) methodology. Our model with two proposed reward functions demonstrated superior performance on ROUGE-1, ROUGE-2, and ROUGE_L than on ROUGE-L as a reward function. Our two models, ROUGE-SIM and ROUGE-WMD, scored 0.418 and 0.406 for ROUGE-L, respectively, for the Gigaword dataset. The two reward functions outperformed ROUGE-L even in the abstractiveness and grammatical aspects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9483920
Pages (from-to)103804-103810
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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