Bone tissue engineering is an alternative therapeutic intervention to repair or regenerate lost bone. This technique requires three essential components: stem cells that can differentiate into bone cells, growth factors that stimulate cell behavior for bone formation, and scaffolds that mimic the extracellular matrix. Among the various kinds of scaffolds, highly porous nanofibrous scaffolds are a potential candidate for supporting cell functions, such as adhesion, delivering growth factors, and forming new tissue. Various fabricating techniques for nanofibrous scaffolds have been investigated, including electrospinning, multi-axial electrospinning, and melt writing electrospinning. Although electrospun fiber fabrication has been possible for a decade, these fibers have gained attention in tissue regeneration owing to the possibility of further modifications of their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties. Recent reports suggest that post-modification after spinning make it possible to modify a nanofiber’s chemical and physical characteristics for regenerating specific target tissues. The objectives of this review are to describe the details of recently developed fabrication and post-modification techniques and discuss the advanced applications and impact of the integrated system of nanofiber-based scaffolds in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review highlights the importance of nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
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© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry