Ion channels present in the plasma membrane are responsible for integration and propagation of electric signals, which transmit information in nerve cells. Malfunction of these ion channels leads to many neurological diseases. Recently, optogenetic technology has gained a lot of attention for the manipulation of neuronal circuits. Optogenetics is a neuromodulation approach that has been developed to control neuronal functions and activities using light. The lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) absorb low energy photons in near-infrared (NIR) window and emit high energy photons in the visible spectrum region via nonlinear processes. In the last few decades, UCNPs have gained great attention in various bio-medical applications such as bio-imaging, drug delivery and optogenetics. The near-infrared illumination is considered more suitable for optogenetics application, due to its lower degree of light attenuation and higher tissue penetration compared to visible light. Therefore, UCNPs have been considered as the new promising candidates for optogenetics applications. Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated optogenetic systems provide a great opportunity to manipulate the ion channel in deep tissue. Herein, we summarize the upconversion photoluminescence in lanthanide doped nanomaterials and its mechanisms and several approaches adopted to tune emission color or enhance upconversion efficiency. Recent advances of lanthanide-doped UCNPs design strategy and their mechanism are reviewed. Then, we discuss the neural circuitry modulation using upconversion nanoparticles mediated optogenetics. Moreover, the future perspectives towards optogenetics are also included.
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© 2021 Chinese Society of Rare Earths
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geochemistry and Petrology