Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly renewable, economical, and carbon–neutral feedstock containing sugar-rich moieties that can be processed to produce second-generation biofuels and bio-sourced compounds. However, due to their heterogeneous multi-scale structure, the lignocellulosic materials have major limitations to valorization and exhibit recalcitrance to saccharification or hydrolysis by enzymes. In this context, this review focuses on the latest methods available and state-of-the-art technologies in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which aids the disintegration of the complex materials into monomeric units. In addition, this review deals with the genetic engineering techniques to develop advanced strategies for fermentation processes or microbial cell factories to generate desired products in native or modified hosts. Further, it also intends to bridge the gap in developing various economically feasible lignocellulosic products and chemicals using biorefining technologies.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal