Infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of severe gastritis and gastric cancer (GC). CagA protein is injected into gastric epithelial cells and deregulates a variety of cellular signaling molecules. Phospholipase D (PLD) is elevated in many different types of human cancers and has been implicated as a critical factor in inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this study, we show that infection with cagA-positive H. pylori in GC cells significantly induces PLD1 expression via CagA-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Interestingly, the level of PLD1 protein and IκBα phosphorylation is aberrantly upregulated in H. pylori-infected human GC tissues. Infection with cagA-positive H. pylori and expression of CagA enhanced the binding of NFκB to the PLD1 promoter, and two functional NFκB-binding sites were identified within the PLD1 promoter. Rebamipide, a mucosal-protective antiulcer agent, abolished H. pylori cagA-induced PLD1 expression via inhibition of binding of NFκB to the PLD1 promoter, and also inhibited PLD activity. Moreover, rebamipide suppressed H. pylori-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9, interleukin-8 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression as well as invasion of GC cells through downregulation of PLD1. Our data suggest that H. pylori cagA targets PLD1 for invasion of GC cells, and rebamipide might contribute to the antitumorigenic effect of GC cells via inhibition of the H. pylori cagA-NFκB-PLD1 signaling pathway.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a grant from the Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, NSF (2009-0092960), South Korea and a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST; no. 2012002009) and by the National R&D program for Cancer Control, Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, Republic of Korea grant 0920050. We are most grateful to Dr DaiHyun Yu (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. Otsuka International Asia Arab Division, Korea) for his helpful suggestions and generous comments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research