Reaction mechanism on the smelting reduction of iron ore by solid carbon

Jae Cheol Lee, Dong Joon Min, Sung Soo Kim

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16 Citations (Scopus)


The kinetics of the smelting reduction of iron ore by a graphite crucible and carbon-saturated molten iron was investigated between 1400°C and 1550°C, and its reaction phenomena were continuously observed in situ by X-ray fluoroscopy. In the smelting reduction by graphite, it was shown from the observation results that the smelting reduction reaction proceeded by the following two stages: an initial quiet reduction without foaming (stage I) and a following highly active reduction with severe foaming (stage II). At 1500°C, by the graphite crucible, the reduction rate of iron ore was found to be 8.88 × 10-5 mol/cm2 · s, and by the molten iron, 8.25 × 10-5 mol/cm2 · s. The activation energies for the reduction by the graphite crucible and the molten iron were 24.1 and 22.9 kcal/mol, respectively. Based on the results of kinetic research and X-ray fluoroscopic observations, it can be concluded that these two types of smelting reduction reactions of iron ore by the graphite crucible and by the molten iron are essentially the same.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1019-1028
Number of pages10
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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