Randomized benchmarking of quantum gates implemented by electron spin resonance

Daniel K. Park, Guanru Feng, Robabeh Rahimi, Jonathan Baugh, Raymond Laflamme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Spin systems controlled and probed by magnetic resonance have been valuable for testing the ideas of quantum control and quantum error correction. This paper introduces an X-band pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer designed for high-fidelity coherent control of electron spins, including a loop-gap resonator for sub-millimeter sized samples with a control bandwidth ∼40 MHz. Universal control is achieved by a single-sideband upconversion technique with an I-Q modulator and a 1.2 GS/s arbitrary waveform generator. A single qubit randomized benchmarking protocol quantifies the average errors of Clifford gates implemented by simple Gaussian pulses, using a sample of gamma-irradiated quartz. Improvements in unitary gate fidelity are achieved through phase transient correction and hardware optimization. A preparation pulse sequence that selects spin packets in a narrowed distribution of static fields confirms that inhomogeneous dephasing (1/T2∗) is the dominant source of gate error. The best average fidelity over the Clifford gates obtained here is 99.2%, which serves as a benchmark to compare with other technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-78
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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