A novel method for quantifying galactose was developed to serve as a newborn screening test for galactosemia using laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (LDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) with a TiO2 nanowire chip. Herein, phosphate citrate buffer, serum, and dried blood spot (DBS) were employed for the quantitative analysis of galactose. To quantitatively analyze galactose, its reduction potential was used to oxidize o-phenylene diamine (OPD) into 2,3-diaminophenazine (DA), which were both detected using LDI-TOF MS with a TiO2 nanowire chip according to the concentration of galactose. The reproducibility and the interference of glucose were determined to demonstrate the applicability of this method. Moreover, mixtures of galactose, phenylalanine, and 17 α-OHP were analyzed to determine the interference induced by other biomarkers of metabolic disorders. The OPD oxidation of galactose was found to be selectively achieved under high-glucose conditions, similar to human blood, thereby showing good reproducibility. The intensities of the mass peaks of OPD and DA based on LDI-TOF MS with a TiO2 nanowire chip were linearly correlated in the galactose concentration range of 57.2–220.0 μg/mL (r2 = 0.999 and 0.950, respectively) for serum samples and 52.5–220.0 μg/mL (r2 = 0.993 and 0.985, respectively) for DBS after methanol precipitation/extraction. The enzyme immunoassay and LDI-TOF MS analysis results were statistically analyzed, and a mixture of phenylalanine, 17 α-OHP, and galactose was simultaneously investigated quantitatively at the cutoff level.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea [grant numbers: NRF-2020R1A2B5B01002187, NRF-2020R1A5A101913111 and NRF-2021R1A2C209370611].
© 2021, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Environmental Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)