PZT/PZT and PZT/BIT composite piezo-sensors in aerospace SHM applications: Photochemical metal organic + infiltration deposition and characterization

Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Nafiseh Ebrahimi, Amir Jafari, Parisa Hoshyarmanesh, Minjae Kim, Hyung Ho Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The composition of fine-ground lead zirconate-titanate powder Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, suspended in PZT and bismuth titanate (BiT) solutions, is deposited on the curved surface of IN718 and IN738 nickel-based supper alloy substrates up to 100 µm thickness. Photochemical metal organic and infiltration techniques are implemented to produce smooth, semi-dense, and crack-free random orientated thick piezoelectric films as piezo-sensors, free of any dopants or thickening polymers. Every single layer of the deposited films is heated at 200C with 10 wt.% excess PbO, irradiated by ultraviolet lamp (365 nm, 6 watt) for 10 min, pyrolyzed at 400C, and subsequently annealed at 700C for one hour. This process is repeated successively until reaching the desired thickness. Au and Pt thin films are deposited as the bottom and top electrodes using evaporation and sputtering methods, respectively. PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT composite films are then characterized and compared to similar PZT and BiT thick films deposited on the similar substrates. The effect of the composition and deposition process is also investigated on the crystalline phase development and microstructure morphology as well as the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of piezo-films. The maximum remnant polarization of Pr = 22.37 ± 0.01, 30.01 ± 0.01 µC/cm2, the permittivity of εr = 298 ± 3, 566 ± 5, and piezoelectric charge coefficient of d33 = 126, 148 m/V were measured versus the minimum coercive field of Ec = 50, 20 kV/cm for the PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT thick films, respectively. The thick film piezo-sensors are developed to be potentially used at frequency bandwidth of 1–5 MHz for rotary structural health monitoring and also in other industrial or medical applications as a transceiver.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors express their thanks to the Material Characterization Lab (MCLAB) at Yonsei University, South Korea, where the generous scientists/engineers provided us with a favorable research environment as well as all required tools, devices, and instruments. This research was supported by the Creative Materials Discovery Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2018M3D1A1058536). This work was supported (researched) by the third Stage of Brain Korea 21 Plus Project in 2018.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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