Product outsourcing policy for a sustainable flexible manufacturing system with reworking and green investment

Raj Kumar Bachar, Shaktipada Bhuniya, Santanu Kumar Ghosh, Ali AlArjani, Elawady Attia, Md Sharif Uddin, Biswajit Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Production of defective products is a very general phenomenon. But backorder and shortages occur due to this defective product, and it hampers the manufacturer's reputation along with customer satisfaction. That is why, these outsourced products supply, a portion of required products for in-line production. This study develops a flexible production model that reworks repairable defective products and outsources products to prevent backlogging. A percentage of total in-line production is defective products, which is random, and those defective products are repairable. A green investment helps the reworking process, which has a direct impact on the market demand for products. A classical optimization solves the profit maximization model, and a numerical method proves the global optimal solutions. Sensitivity analysis, managerial insights, and discussions provide the highlights and decision-making strategies for the applicability of this model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1376-1401
Number of pages26
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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