Pollution, toxicity and carcinogenicity of organic dyes and their catalytic bio-remediation

Muhammad Ismail, Kalsoom Akhtar, M. I. Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Murad A. Khan, Abdullah M. Asiri, Jongchul Seo, Sher B. Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

218 Citations (Scopus)


Water pollution due to waste effluents of the textile industry is seriously causing various health problems in humans. Water pollution with pathogenic bacteria, especially Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other microbes is due to the mixing of fecal material with drinking water, industrial and domestic sewage, pasture and agricultural runoff. Among the chemical pollutants, organic dyes due to toxic nature, are one of the major contaminants of industrial wastewater. Adequate sanitation services and drinking quality water would eliminate 200 million cases of diarrhea, which results in 2.1 million less deaths caused by diarrheal disease due to E. coli each year. Nanotechnology is an excellent platform as compared to conventional treatment methods of water treatment and remediation from microorganisms and organic dyes. In the current study, toxicity and carcinogenicity of the organic dyes have been studied as well as the remediation/inactivation of dyes and microorganism has been discussed. Remediation by biological, physical and chemical methods has been reviewed critically. A physical process like adsorption is cost-effective, but can’t degrade dyes. Biological methods were considered to be ecofriendly and cost-effective. Microbiological degradation of dyes is cost-effective, eco-friendly and alternative to the chemical reduction. Besides, certain enzymes especially horseradish peroxidase are used as versatile catalysts in a number of industrial processes. Moreover, this document has been prepared by gathering recent research works related to the dyes and microbial pollution elimination from water sources by using heterogeneous photocatalysts, metal nanoparticles catalysts, metal oxides and enzymes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3645-3663
Number of pages19
JournalCurrent Pharmaceutical Design
Issue number34
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Bentham Science Publishers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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