Platycodin D is a major constituent in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum and has diverse pharmacologic activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and antitumor activities. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are potent angiogenic factors and contribute to tumor angiogenesis by directly and indirectly promoting angiogenic processes, including the proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells. Here, we found that platycodin D at noncytotoxic concentrations inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation, adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and vitronectin, chemotactic motility, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Platycodin D reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the secretion of IL-8 in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Moreover, platycodin D inhibited tube formation and the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 in IL-8-stimulated HUVECs. The in vitro anti-angiogenic activity of platycodin D was confirmed by in vivo experimental models. Platycodin D inhibited the formation of new blood vessels into mouse Matrigel plugs with VEGF or IL-8. In mice injected with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, orally administered platycodin D inhibited tumor growth, the number of CD34 +vessels, and the expression of VEGF and IL-8. Taken together, platycodin D directly and indirectly prevents VEGF-induced and IL-8-induced angiogenesis by blocking the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Platycodin D may be beneficial for the prevention or treatment of tumor angiogenesis and angiogenesis-related human diseases.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and alternative medicine